Ketu, Dani, Stephanie, and Katie

WeLcOmE!!

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Essential Questions

How has South American culture changed over time?

How do the individual countries compare and contrast with each other?

How have other nations effected the culture of South America?


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By: Ketu

By: Stephanie


By: Stephanie

By: Dani


Directions: Answer each essential question, listing five facts for each. After, email this document to the following email address:

Samericanculture@yahoo.com




Learn to make fresh Paraguayan Corn Bread!





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Seven Aspects of Culture:

Technology

Economics

Politics

Language Art and Tradition

Religion

Social Organization



CULTURE: LETS BEGIN!



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I. Early Inhabitants

  • A. Amerindians
    • 1. First lived as nomadic tribes
    • 2. First people to cultivate cacao, chilies, corn, kidney and lima beans, potatoes, squash, tomatoes, and tobacco
  • B. Incas
    • 1. Lived in the Andes in what is now Peru
    • 2. Stood as a center of a far-flung communications network extending over the Andes, from Quito, Ecuador, south to Argentina.
    • 3. Cut terraces into steep hillsides and used irrigation canals to carry water to their crops
    • 4. No written language
    • 5. To keep records, they used a sophisticated and highly accurate system of knotted strings, know as quipu
II. Colonization
  • A. Spanish and Portuguese-16th century
    • 1. Established plantations to grow sugar cane, tobacco, and other crops to export to Europe
      • a. Brought millions of Africans to Latin America and forced them to work as slaves
        • i. Strong African traditions
    • 2. Brought European disease, which the Indians had no natural immunity
    • 3. Roman Catholic missionaries came to convert Indians to Christianity
    • 4. Established a new system of government
    • 5. Brought new languages

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III. Current Culture
  • A. City Life
    • 1. Cities resemble those in the United States and Canada
    • 2. Old sections of cities contain Spanish-style buildings, which are made of stone or adobe, and many have decorative iron grillwork over the windows
    • 3. Since the 1990s, urban violence has risen sharply
  • B. Rural Life
    • 1. Until the late 1900's, many people lived and worked on small family farms in isolated areas
    • 2. Little or no modern equipment or chemical fertilizers
    • 3. Traditional methods, which depend upon hand tools and animal labor, enabled them to make a living from lands that would be too difficult to cultivate with more modern methods
    • 4. Since the late 1900's, many small farmers have left rural areas, and rural traditions have faded
    • 5. Plantations, found mainly in Brazil and coastal areas, continue to be important today
      • a. Produce coffee, flowers, spices, and sugar for export
      • b. Efficient and highly profitable
    • 6. Homes
      • a. one-two rooms
      • b. tropical areas-made of wood or dried mud and sticks, dirt floors, and thatch or tin roofs
      • clearninglatinamerica » SouthAmericaCulture. mountain villages-built of stone or adobe and have red tile roofs
      • d. wealthy landowners-luxurious mansions on their estates
    • 7. Communities
      • a. Some consist of only a few houses
      • b. Larger settlements have a church, shops, and government buildings arranged around a public square called a plaza
    • 8. Work in mining, tourism, cattle ranches, fishing or raising llamas and other animals
    • 9. Those in remote areas continue to follow precolonial ways of life
  • C. Family Life
    • 1. Extended family
    • 2. Family dynamics
      • a. Roman Catholic and Protestant families-male has head authority in the household
      • b. Indigenous groups-equal authority between men and women
  • D. Work
    • 1. Traditionally, only men were expected to work outside the home
    • 2. Women stayed home to care for their families
    • 3. Since the mid-1900s, attitudes have changed and increasing educational and career opportunities have become available to women
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  • 1. An important social institution
  • F. Clothing
    • 1. Varies from region to region, depending on climate and custom
  • G. Food and Drink
    • 1. People in the mountainous areas eat potatoes and chew leaves of the coca shrub
    • 2. People in tropical areas eat cassava, bananas, mangoes, oranges and pineapples
    • 3. People in Argentina and Uruguay eat many foods made from wheat and beef
    • 4. In coastal areas and along rivers, fish and shellfish is popular
    • 5. In some regions, dishes are highly seasoned with onions and hot peppers
    • 6. Tea called mate is popular
    • 7. Favorite alcoholic drinks include beer, rum, wine, and aguardiente
  • H. Recreation
    • 1. Soccer is the most popular sport
    • 2. Feistas
  • I. Education
    • 1. More than 90 percent of the people can read and write in most countries
    • 2. Every country has a public school system
  • J. Architecture
    • 1. Stone walls built by Incas in Cusco, Peru
      • a. No mortar
      • b. Could withstand earthquakes
  • 2. 1600s-cathedrals, mansions and palaces built in Baroque style
    • a. carved columns
    • b. ornate sculptures
    • c. gold and silver colored tiles
  • K. Music
    • 1. Joao Gilberto and Antonio Carlos Jobim
      • a. led bossa nova movement in the 1950s and 1960s
    • 2. Shakira
      • a. Colombian-born
      • b. sold millions of records worldwide
    • c. English- and Spanish- language pop songs are influenced by her Colombian and Lebanese background
    • 3. Milton Nascimento and Caetano Veloso
      • a. popular Brazilian musicians
      • b. won worldwide recognition
    • 4. Precolonial people
      • a. Music was important
      • b. Traditional instruments such as panpipes ( a kind of flute )
    • 5. Influence
      • Native South Americans influenced music
      • Spanish
      • Africans brought to the area as slaves
      • Roman Catholicism
        • Music played is a mixture of Native South Americans, Spanish, and African style
    • 6. Different types of music for
      • agricultural labor
      • building houses
      • funerals
      • marketing cattle, sheep, and goats
      • traditional dances & traditional dance songs
    • 7. Lyrics
      • Spanish
      • Quechua
        • Songs are usually about Earth, seasons, harvest time, ove, family, children, and stars
    • 8. Instruments
      • pan pipes
      • flutes
      • rattles
      • guitar (introduced by Spanish)
      • native guitar called charango
      • drum
      • harps
      • mandolins
      • violins
      • oboes
    • 9. Popular Styles
      • Valses (Waltzes)
      • Tango
      • Salsa
      • Soca

L. People: Three Main Racial Heritages
  • 1. Caucasian- live in Argentina, Uruguay, and southern Brazil
  • 2. African Americans- live in Brazil and Columbia
  • 3. Indian- live in Andean Highlands (mostly Peru, Bolivia, and Ecuador) & in wet tropical lowlands

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M. Language
  • 1. Spanish-official language
  • 2. Several dialects of Portuguese in Brazil
  • 3. English & Dutch used in Guyana and Suriname
  • 4. French- the language of French Guiana
  • 5. Many Indians are monolingual and only speak their native languages
N. Religion
  • 1. Roman Catholicism
    • Found all throughout South America
    • One of the most common religions
    • Conservative Protestant sects are attracting and increasing the numbers of converts (particularly in Brazil's urban slums)
  • 2. Argentina has the largest Jewish population, estimated at nearly 500,000 in 2003
  • 3. Religious Patterns in South America Statistics
    • 31% of Uruguayans have no religion
    • 27% of the people of Suriname are Hindus
    • 10% of Paraguayans are Mennonites.
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    >> CultureGrams
    4.
O. Holidays
  • 1. Ano Nove ( AKA: New Years Day, Revillon, Rio de Janerio)
    • Whole country celebrates New Year's Day
    • Anywhere up to 2 million people gather to celebrate on the beach to enjoy
      • Fireworks
      • Live music
    • In some areas Candomble believers dress in white and blue in order to
      • Honor the sea goddess -Iemanja
      • Gain energy for the new year
  • 2. Carnival Rio (late February - early March)
    • Takes place during the 5 day up to Ash Wednesday, with the last day of Carnival falling on Shrove Tuesday
    • The most famous events during the 5 days of Carnival are the Rio Carnival
      • People celebrate with street parades
      • Sambas
      • Group dancing
      • Parties
      • Costumes
      • Conga drums
      • Music
    • During the week of Carnival, crimes and car accident rates are usually high.
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  • 3. Good Friday
    • Mainly celebrated by the Roman Catholic nation
    • However, it is a national holiday in Brazil
  • 4. Tiradentes Day (Brazil)
    • Commemorates the death of Brazilian national hero, Joaquim Jose da Silva Xavier
      • Joaquim was a dentist
      • Nationalist
      • Died fighting for independence.
    • This holiday got its name by "tiradentes" meaning "tooth-puller".
  • 5. Labor Day (May 1st)
  • 6. Corpus Christi (June 10th)
    • Brazilian hoiday
    • Signifying close association with the Roman Catholic Church
  • 7. Christmas (December 25th)
    • Christmas in Brazil officially starts on December 24, and is a half-day holiday.
    • Christmas Day itself is known as Feliz Natal.
    • In Brazil, Christmas is actually the height of the summer season here - so there would be no snow in sight. On Christmas Eve, people eat big meals and exchange gifts.
  • 8. Dia de la Raza (Oct 12th)
    • Celebrates the discovery of the Americans
    • Celebrates the resulting mix of ethnicities
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P. Education
  • 1. Highest Ranks
    • Argentina, Chile, Guyana and Uruguay do the most effective job of educating their citizens
      • Literacy rates are very high
      • Reach 96 % and greater
  • 2. Lowest Ranks
    • Brazil (literacy rate of 86.4 %)
    • Bolivia (literacy rate of 87.2%
  • 3. Generally, the percent of women who are literate is less than the percent of literate men.
  • 4. In rural areas there are greater percentages of illiterates than in urban areas
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Q. Greetings
  • 5. Meeting for the first time
    • Shake hands
    • Exchange good wishes
  • 6. Close friends
    • Kiss on the cheek
    • Shake hands
  • 7. New acquaintance
    • Address them by title (such as Senor, Senora, Doctor, Doctora, etc.)
    • When someone closer to your age or friends are talking to one another they are not as formal.
R. Gestures
  • 1. Draw circle in the air with index finger- means "be right back"
  • 2. Stick out hand, as if to shake hands, and twist wrist as if waving- means "sorry"
  • 3. Puckering or pursing lips- pointing
  • 4. Lifting chin- means "up the road"
  • 5. Lowering chin- means "down the road"
  • 6. Impolite gestures include
    • Yawning
    • Whistling
    • Yelling to get someone's attention
    • Pointing with the index finger
S. Agriculture
  • 1. Countries are known for their agricultural commodities.
  • 2. Brazil -the world's leading exporter of
    • Coffee
    • Sugarcane production
    • One of the world's chief exporters of cacao
    • Forest products (but nation's forest are most threatened by development)
  • 3. Ecuador
    • Bananas are the main crop
    • Ranked for several decades as the world's number-one exporter.
  • 4. Chile is internationally famous for its wines.
  • 5. Argentina and Brazil produce large numbers of beef cattle.
  • 6. Uruguay
    • Ranks second behind Argentina in number of sheep (but it has more than six sheep per person, which is the highest in the world)
    • Pigs are raised all throughout the continent
  • 8. South America's chief food crops Maize
    • Rice
    • Wheat supplemented with beans and root crops (such as)
      • Cassava
      • Potatoes
  • 9. Peru
    • Exploits one of South America's major biological resources just off its coast: the anchovy.
      • Peruvian fishermen caught enough anchovies from 1962 to 1972 to propel their country into first place in the world for volume of fish caught.
      • The anchovies are ground into fish meal, which is exported primarily to Europe for use in chicken feed and in fertilizer
T. Transportation
  • 1. Longest Rail Networks
    • Argentina
    • Brazil
    • Chile
  • 2. Airplanes (important for maintaining communications)
  • 3. Railroads, Highways, Waterways
    • Brazil
    • Argentina
    • Venezuela
    • Columbia
      • Each of these countries supplement their railroads and highways with important inland waterway
      • The Hidrovía project
        • A planned waterway to link the Paraguay and Paraná rivers- has raised environmental concerns.
        • Its backers argue that it would cut regional shipping costs and give Paraguay and Bolivia an outlet to the sea.
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The South American Countries:

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I. Argentina

  • A. Technology

    • 1. Manufactures automobiles, machinery, chemicals, iron, and steel
      2. Industry contains meatpacking, flour milling, sugar refining, and wine making
      3. Buenos Aires- high concentration of factories
      4. Natural gases that are burned by plants supply Agrentina with more then half of its electric power
  • B. Economics
    • 1. Industry contributes over 1/3 of GNP, and employs ¼ of labor force
    >> 2. Agriculture contributes 10 % of GNP and employs 20% of labor force
    >> 3. One of world’s leading beef producers and sheep, pig, and horse producers
    >> 4. 23% woodland
    >> 5. Mining- copper, lead, zinc, and coal
    >> 6. Main mineral resources are petroleum and natural gas
    >> 7. Imports from US, Brazil (largest trading partner), Germany, Italy, France, and Japan
    >> 8. Exports to Italy, the Netherlands, Great Britain, Brazil, Germany, the US, and China
    >> 9. Currency: Peso
    >> 10. Per capita GDP: $10,000
    >> 11. Still under foreign debts
    >> 12. Since early 2000's- toruism gained more importance to majorite of Agrentina's economy
  • C. Politics/ Government
    • 1. Republic type of government – 23 provinces
    >> 2. Headed by president with vice president elected by direct popular vote to four-year term, with a two-term limit
    >> 3. 2-member Senate elected by direct popular vote has legislative power with also a 257-member Chamber of Deputies elected by universal suffrage
    >> 4. National congress has two houses
    >> 5. Voting age is 18 years old
  • D. Language

    • 1. Official Language- Spanish
      2.Each region in Argentina acquire different accents (Buenos Aires accent is known to be the most distinctive, and it was influenced by the Italians)
      3. Also speak English, Italian, German and French
      4. Many indigenous people spreak: Quechua, Guaraní, and Mapuche
  • E. Art and Tradition
    • 1. Argentina is vigorously influenced by music and operas
    >> 2. The Colón- an opera house located in Buenos Aires
    >> 3. Strong Native American influence – in folk arts, horn-carving, silver work, leather work, ceramics, and weaving
    >> 4. A type of dance called the tango was invented in the country of Argentina.
    >> 5. Cowboy (the gaucho) – is an important symbol in Argentina, and is frequently found in paintings and literature
  • F. Religion
    • 1. Majority belong to a Roman Catholic Church (about 82%)
    >> 2. In the constitution of Argentina, there is a rule which states at all candidates who run for the office of president or vice president must be Roman Catholic.
    >> 3. About 7%- apart of a protestant church
    >> 4. About 2% - Jewish
  • G. Social Organization
    • 1. Urban families – small, average of two children
    >> 2. Rural families are larger
    >> 3. Mother- takes care of children, household finances, and she is usually the family decision maker
    >> 4. Men work long hours- outside, and a typical day begins before 9:00 AM
    >> 5. 1987- Divorcing was made legal in Argentina
    >> 6. Many Argentines have two family names
  • H. Holidays
    • 1. Christmas Eve- large dinners, music, family gathering, firework display
    >> 2. New Year’s Day
    >> 3. Good Friday and Easter, Labor Day (May 1)
    >> 4. May Revolution’s Anniversary- May 25
    >> 5. Malvinas Day – June 10
    >> 6. Flag Day- June 20
    >> 7. Independence Day- July 9th
    >> 8. José de San Martín (Liberator for Argentina during the defeat of the Spanish in 1812) – August 17
    >> 9. Student day – September 21
  • I. Greetings
    • 1. Shake hands slightly
    >> 2. Urban areas- kiss on the cheek when people meet
    >> 3. Impolite to call out a greeting
    >> 4. ¡Buenos días!, ¡Buenas tardes! – When people pass each other on the streets, or acquaintances
  • J. Foods
    • 1. Typically eat three meals a day
    >> 2. Most Argentines eat a “snack” during the middle of the day- consist of tea and a snack
    >> 3. Elbows are not allows on the table
    >> 4. Disrespectful gestures when one is eating: Using a toothpick (even in public), when one is blowing his or her nose, talking with his or her mouth full of food, and the clearing of ones throat at the table
    >> 5. Tipping is not require, but recommended at a restaurant
    >> 6. Common foods: Empanadas (meat or vegetable turnover), and asado (barbequed food items)
    >> 7. Ice cream- favorite food year around, parlors usually consist of more then 60 different flavors


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II. Bolivia
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  • A. Technology
    • 1. Railroads, industries, and tin mining
    >> 2. much modernization in early 1900’s
    >> 3. Resources- minerals, plastered land, fertile soil, timber
    >> 4. Many private enterprises – where most money is made
    >> 5. Government control- most mining industries and basic industries
    >> 6. Developing country
    >> 7. 70% of the energy comes from petroleum
    >> 8. Other sources of energy- natural gasses and hydroelectricity
  • B. Economics
    • 1. Currency: Boliviano
    >> 2. Per capita GDP: $3,000
    >> 3. One of the poorest countries in Latin America
    >> 4. About 2/3 of the population lives in the life of poverty
    >> 5. Based on export on raw materials
    >> 6. Centered on mining
    >> 7. Second largest tin-producing country
    >> 8. Also zinc, lead, copper, silver, oil, and natural gas (1/3 of Bolivia’s total exports) ½ of workers engaged in agriculture
    >> 9. Domestic food only meets 75% of countries needs
    >> 10. Altiplano best suited for agriculture
    >> 11. Coffee is major crop
    >> 12. Also grow barley, wheat, corn, beans, potatoes, and sugar cane
    >> 13. Imports more than exports with deficit paid by Us
    >> 14. Exports to US and Great Britain
    >> 15. Imports from US, Japan, and Brazil
    >> 16. Exports illegal raw coca and partially refined cocaine
  • C. Politics/ Government
    • 1. Republic with executive branch headed by president
    >> 2. Legislative power in bicameral congress with 27-member Senate and 130 member Chamber of Deputies
    >> 3. Departmental officials appointed by central government
    >> 4. Current president- Evo Morales (2007)
    >> 5. President can not serve for more then one term
    >> 6. Voting age 18
  • D. Language
    • 1. Official languages include Spanish, Quechua, and Aymara
    >> 2. About 40% of the population use Spanish
    >> 3. Spanish- used my most schooling, government, businesses,
    >> 4. Most rural area and most indigenous people speak their own languages
  • E. Art and Tradition
    • 1. Root back to pre-Inca civilizations
    >> 2. Gold and silver- Since the colonial era most Bolivians use gold and silver for architectural ornaments, and jewelry
    >> 3. The Guaraní region- basket weaving and wood carving is common
    >> 4. Music is typically divided into three types: east and northeast typically play happy rhythms, romantic and melancholic rhythms are usually played in the 5. Andes Mountains, and the central valleys usually play sophisticated romantic and happy rhythms
    >> 6. Instruments- panpipes, vertical flutes, percussion instrument, the charango (a sting guitar resembling instrument made from an armadillo shell
    >> 7. Tradtional dances- cueca, tinky, and saya
  • F. Religion
    • 1. 95% are Roman Catholic
    >> 2. Indigenous belief systems and Protestant minorities present to this day
  • G. Social Organization
    • 1. Middle/Upper class – have one to two children
    >> 2. Poor families usually have more children, however many die at infancy from starvation
    >> 3. Children – live with their parents until they are married, or even sometimes after they get married
    >> 4. Most women work at home
    >> 5. Upper and Middle class families often have maids
    >> 6. Fathers usually make most family decisions
    >> 7. The elderly commonly live with the children’s family
  • H. Holidays
    • 1. New Year’s Day
    >> 2. Carnaval (Dancing, pouring water on people, and people generally wear costumes) – Saturday before Ash Wednesday
    >> 3. Día del Mar (Sea day, the war with Chile on the ocean) – March 23
    >> 4. Father’s day – March 19
    >> 5. Labor day- May 19
    >> 6. Mother’s Day- May 27
    >> 7. Independence Day- August 6
    >> 8. All Saints’ Day- November 1
    >> 9. Christmas / Christmas Eve
    >> 10. Three Kings’ Day (Children often receive gifts on this day) – January 6
  • I. Greetings
    • 1. Most Spanish speakers greet with: ¡Buenos días! (Good morning), ¡Buenas tardes! (Good afternoon), or ¡Buenas mooches! (Good evening).
    >> 2. Often times people add: Señor (Mr.), Señora (Mrs.), or Señorita (Miss) before starting a conversation with others
    >> 3. Greetings usually begin with a hand shake
    >> 4. If hands are dirty the person may offer an elbow or arm
    >> 5. In cities- people typically greet with a kiss on the cheek or near the cheek
    >> 6. People commonly walk arm in arm
  • J. Food
    • 1. Most families eat together
    >> 2. One large or two small meals per day
    >> 3. Rural families typically/might eat four meals per day
    >> 4. Everything on plates are expected to be eaten
    >> 5. Dining is most common during lunch time
    >> 6. Hosts are suppose to pay the bill when large families go to a restaurant to eat together

III. Columbia

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  • A. Technology
    • 1. Manufacturing devoted to textiles, and food processing
    >> 2. Beverages, shoes, steel and chemicals are also produced
    >> 3. Hampered by lack of capital for investment, poor transportation, small domestic market, and political instability
    >> 4. Developing country
    >> 5. Most factories are located near: Bogotá, Medellin, and Cali
    >> 6. Hydroelectric plants- more then 75% of Columbia’s electricity
    >> 7. Average about 1 radio fro every 2 people, and for every 9 people 1 television
    >> 8. About 35 newspapers are published daily
  • B. Economics
    • 1. Agriculture is most important part (employs ¼)
    >> 2. Coffee is chief crop (second leading coffee exporter)

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    • 3. Flowers and banana- important exports
      4. Other commercial crops include bananas, flowers, sugar cane, tobacco, cotton, and cacao
      5. Oil- main legal export
      6. 90% of the world’s emeralds are mined here
      7. 14%- unemployment rate
      8. Cattle also raised
      9. Rich in mineral resources
      10. Petroleum second most valuable export
      11. Growing industry and contributes 20% of GNP
      12. Currency: Peso
      13. Per capita GDP: $6,200
      14. Half of the country is covered with woodlands and forests
  • C. Politics/ Government
    • 1. Constitutional Republic
    >> 2. There are 32 different states
    >> 3. Chief executive is president (4-year term, cannot be reelected)
    >> 4. Congress contains 102-member Senate and 166-member House of Representatives
    >> 5. Columbia divided into 32 departments headed by governors plus Capital District of Bogotá
    >> 6. Current president (2007)- Alvaro Uribe
    >> 7. Major political parties- Liberal Party and Conservative Party
    >> 8. Voting age- 18
  • D. Language
    • 1. Majority speak Spanish (the countries official language)
    >> 2. Indigenous ethnic groups mostly have their own languages
    >> 3. 80 different groups- 40 different languages are spoken
    >> 4. Formal education is bilingual
  • E. Art and Tradition
    • 1. Music and dance mainly make up culture
    >> 2. Music- influenced strongly by African or Indigenous styles
    >> 3. Tropical rhythms- salsa, meringue, and vallenato
    >> 4. The Bambuco- national song and dance from the Andes
    >> 5. Many weave hammocks, sashes, bags, and blue and red ruanas (wool shawls)
    >> 6. Ceramics and decorative trim for clothing and furniture are also produced
  • F. Religion
    • 1. Freedom of religion- but nearly 90% of the people belong to Roman Catholic Churches
    >> 2. Protestant and other Christian organizations have a growing membership
    >> 3. Catholicism is an important cultural influence
    >> 4. Catholic religious instructions still take place in public schools to this day, but they not have to
  • G. Social Organization
    • 1. Unity and support is important
    >> 2. Traditional values take authority over family relations
    >> 3. Divorcing is very uncommon
    >> 4. Typical family- mother, father, and two to four children
    >> 5. Father- provides for family
    >> 6. Mother- domestic role
    >> 7. More then 1/3 of the working field includes females
    >> 8. Children typically live with their parents until he or she is married
    >> 9. More then half of the population lives under poverty
    >> 10. Family mebers commonly have two family names
  • H. Holidays
    • 1. New Year’s Day
    >> 2. Epiphany- January 6
    >> 3. St. Joseph’s day- March 19
    >> 4. Easter
    >> 5. Labor day- May 1
    >> 6. Independence Day- July 20
    >> 7. Battle of Bovacá- August 7
    >> 8. Alls Saints’ Day- November 1
    >> 9. Christmas
    >> 10. - On Christmas Even families eat a very big dinner, pray, sing carols, and exchange gifts
  • I. Greetings
    • 1. Men typically shake hands with people
    >> 2. Women kiss acquaintances on the cheek, or offer a verbal greeting or handshake
    >> 3. Close family members offer a hug
    >> 4. Common greetings: Buenos días! (Good morning), ¡Buenas tardes! (Good afternoon), ¡Buenas noches! (Good evening), and ¿Cómo está? (How are you?)
    >> 5. Common departure phrases: ¡Hasta luego!, ¡Chao!, and ¡Nos vemos!
  • J. Food
    • 1. Breakfast- Juice, coffee, hot chocolate, fruit, eggs, bread, or changua (potato-and-egg soup)
    >> 2. Snacks are commonly eaten
    >> 3. Lunch (noon to 2pm) - the main meal of the day
    >> 4. Urban areas may eat their main meals at night
    >> 5. Supper – 7 to 8 pm
    >> 6. National dishes: Arroz con Pollo (chicken with rice), frijoles con chircharrón (pork and beans), and sancocho (stew with chicken, fish, or meat and vegetables
    >> 7. Sugar and milk- primary ingredients in most deserts
    >> 8. Common Sunday treat- Ice cream
    >> 9. Conversation is welcome at the table (to stimulate a feeling of friendliness)
    >> 10. Overeating is very rude, but a host may offer more servings
    >> 11. Hands over the table is very impolite
    >> 12. Eating on the streets is very improper
    >> 13. Tipping in a restaurant is not mandatory

IV. Venezuela
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  • A. Technology
    • 1. Oil refining most important industry
    >> 2. Aluminum, steel, and iron production
    >> 3. Major industries include cotton and wool textiles, leather goods, cement, petrochemicals, and automobile assembly
    >> 4. Also, include food processing, meatpacking, construction materials, etc.
  • B. Economics
    • 1. Heavily dependant on petroleum
    >> 2. Government trying to be less dependant on it
    >> 3. Iron ore deposits which is second largest export
    >> 4. Hydroelectric power abundant
    >> 5. Also gold, diamonds, natural gas, asbestos, bauxite, sulfur, copper, gypsum, limestone, and salt

external image 25083.15Venezuela-World-Bank-IMF.sff.jpg
http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/dayart/aponline/25083.15Venezuela-World-Bank-IMF.sff.jpg

  • C. Politics/ Government
    • 1. Republic
    >> 2. President (5-year term)
    >> 3. Legislative power vested in 165-member unicameral National Assembly
    >> 4. Two senators from each state
    >> 5. Additional senators appointed to represent minorities
    >> 6. Judicial power in Supreme Tribunal of Justice
    • 7. Divided into 23 states, 1 federal district, and 1 federal dependency with 72 Caribbean islands
  • D. Language
    • 1. Official language is Spanish
    >> 2. Some indigenous groups do not speak Spanish
    >> 3. English required in high school courses
  • E. Art and Tradition
    • 1. Llaneros (relevant to cowboys) very important in art work
    >> 2. Joropo is the national dance
    >> 3. Popular music include salsa, meringue, gaitas (Christmas music), and aguinaldos (songs played during Christmas)
    >> 4. Literature exemplifies nationalism (developed in 20th centaury)
    >> 5. Crafts produced include: musical instruments, canoes, and saddles.
  • F. Religion
    • 1. Freedom of religion (promised by the constitution)
    >> 2. Up to 90% is Roman Catholic
    >> 3. Faith in god, Virgin Mary, and Catholic saints
    >> 4. Generally less religious then in surrounding Latin American countries
    >> 5. Rural regions - more devoted to god
    >> 6. Urban regions - less devoted to god
  • G. Social Organization
    • 1. Strong interdependent families
    >> 2. Extended families in typical households
    >> 3. Father is most dominant member of the family
    >> 4. Wife is typically in charge of the children and household managing
    >> 5. 10% or less workers are women
    >> 6. those families who are rich customarily share prosperity with relatives
  • H. Holidays
    • 1. Major holidays include: Carnaval (two days before Ash Wednesday), New Years Eve, New Year’s Day, Ash Wednesday, Christmas Eve, Christmas, and Declaration of Independence (April 19)
    >> 2. Semana Santa (Holy Week) is during the week after Eater
    >> 3. Carnaval- typically celebrated in the eastern portions of Venezuela
    >> 4. Annual ferias (festival) take place in cities and towns in honor of saints
  • I. Greetings
    • 1. Men use an abrazo to greet close friends (a hug, while patting each other on the back)
    >> 2. Women greet with a kiss on the cheek to other close friends
    >> 3. Firm handshake to strangers
    >> 4. People stand closer to each other during conversation
    >> 5. Common greetings and departures: ¡Buenas tardes! (Good afternoon), ¡Buenos días! (Good morning), and ¡Buenas noches! (Good evening).
    >> 6. People address each other with nicknames
  • J. Food
    • 1. Main meal is lunch
    >> 2. Parents sit at the head of the table
    >> 3. It is considered inappropriate for adults to eat on the streets
    >> 4. Common foods: pasta, beans, white cheese, rice, plantains, chicken, fish, and potatoes
    >> 5. Popular food includes the arepa - fried pancake made from white corn flour, filed with butter, meat, and cheese
    >> 6. Open-air markets in many cities
    >> 7. Popular fruits: lechoza (papaya), watermelon, mangoes, and bananas
    >> 8. Favored drinks: soda and coffee

V. Chile

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<< All Google Images>>

  • A. Technology
    • 1. Service industries and manufacture- GDP
    >> 2. Mining important role
    >> 3. Imports more then 90% of its petroleum
    >> 4. Hydroelectric power plants- produces more then half of Chile’s electric power
    >> 5. Petroleum and natural gases- creates the rest of the power needed
  • B. Economics
    • 1. One of the strongest
    >> 2. Foreign debts are decreasing
    >> 3. Men’s wages are still higher then women’s wages
    >> 4. Government- created a program to help poor in small-businesses, creating a home to low-income families, and donating money to poorer schools
    >> 5. Families under the poverty factor has decreased
    >> 6. Large producer of Copper- 40% of exports
    >> 7. Fresh fruit- another important exports
    >> 8. Expand exporting with international free-trade agreements
    >> 9. Currency: Peso (CLP)
  • C. Politics/Government
    • 1. Republic- with a multiparty democracy
    >> 2. 13 regions (Region one is located north)
    >> 3. Current president (2007)- President Michelle Bachelet
    >> 4. Congress has two houses- Senate (38 members) and Chamber of Deputies (120 members)
    >> 5. Legislative- located in Valparaiso city
    >> 6. Voting age- 18
  • D. Language
    • 1. The official language is Spanish (often called Castellano)
    >> 2. In many schools English is often taught
    >> 3. Minority groups often speak German and Mapuche (in Southern parts)
  • E. Art and Tradition
    • 1. Poetry is very powerful- most know for
    >> 2. European arts and music
    >> 3. Traditional art- base for many modern artists and musicians
    >> 4. Textile and pottery (based off the designs of indigenous people)- base of many modern designs
    >> 5. Current music and dance- based off Native and Spanish heritages
    >> 6. National dance- the cueca
    >> 7. Folk music- influential in political and social improvement
    >> 8. Instruments- accordion, guitarrón, guitar, harp, rabel, and piano
  • F. Religion
    • 1. Most believe in a Christian faith
    >> 2. 80%- belong to a Roman Catholic Church
    >> 3. Most others belong to other Christian churches, or a Protestant group
    >> 4. Small minority of Jews
    >> 5. Indigenous people- follows other religious beliefs
    >> 6. Religious freedom in all parts
  • G. Social Organization
    • 1. Family unit includes extended family
    >> 2. Past- men dominated the households
    >> 3. Present-a women take part in many chief political and business positions, while father takes lead in family duties
    >> 4. Mother- influences decision-making
    >> 5. Family accept two family names (the last name of the mother’s family and the second-to-last name if father’s name)
  • H. Holidays
    • 1. New Year’s Day- most important holiday
    • 2. Easter
    >> 3. Labor Day- May 1
    >> 4. Naval Battle of Iquique- May 21
    >> 5. Day of National Unity- September 11
    >> 6. Armed Forces Day- September 19
    >> 7. Independence Day- September 18
    >> 8. During Independence Day- spend day at the park, drink Chicha, eat empanadas, and dance
    >> 9. Christmas- family holiday, mostly celebrated like those who celebrate it in North America, but it is in the summer
  • I. Greetings
    • 1. Greetings- emphasize and recognizes and welcome
    >> 2. The abrazo (a type of greeting)- handshake and hug, with a kiss to the right cheek for most women and family members
    >> 3. The abrazo may also be repeated when one is leaving
    >> 4. Greetings-¡Gusto de verte! (Nice to see you), and ¿Cómo estás? (“How are you?”)
    >> 5. Parting phrase- Chao (bye)
    >> 6. Most address people with: Señor (Mr.), Señora (Mrs.), and Señorita (Miss), Doctor/a, Director/a, Profesor/a (with strangers and acquaintances)
  • J. Food
    • 1. Main meal- eaten during midday
    >> 2. Lighter meals- eaten 8 to 10 PM
    >> 3. Afternoon tea time (tea, beverages, small sandwiches, cookies, and cakes)- 5 to 6 PM
    >> 4. Meals are eaten in a continental fashion
    >> 5. Impolite to leave after eating- stay for conversation
    >> 6. Eating food (besides ice cream) is impolite while walking in public
    >> 7. Fast food- very popular
    >> 8. National dishes include either: seafood, fish, beef, chicken, beans, eggs, or corn
    >> 9. Favorite dishes: pastel de choclo (a baked meal of beef, chicken, onions, corn, eggs, and spices), empanadas de horno (meat turnovers with beef, hard-boiled eggs, onions, olives, and raisins), cazuela de ave (chicken soup), and ensalada chilena (cold tomato-and-onion salad)
    >> 10. Well known for wines – Pisco (a grape brandy wine) is its national drink


VI. Peru

llama.jpg music-charango.jpg YerupajaPeak.jpg toledo.jpg
<<(All Google Images)>>

  • A. Technology
    • 1. Manufacturing plants are located on the coasts use workers
    >> 2. Plants process exports of raw material
    >> 3. Large factories produce furniture, paper products, chemicals, steal, and processed food
    >> 4. Most road are unpaved
    >> 5. One automobile for every 50 people
    >> 6. Llamas- pack animals in highlands
    >> 7. There are two airlines
  • B. Economics
    • 1. Unemployment is high
    >> 2. Half of the population lives in poverty
    >> 3. Natural resources: iron ore, timber, silver, gold, oil, and fish
    >> 4. Important agricultural products: Potatoes, rice, wheat, and sugarcane
    >> 5. 1/3 of employment is from agriculture
    >> 6. Currency: Nuevo sol
    >> 7. Trade with: Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela
    >> 8. Dependence on drug trade
  • C. Politics/ Government
    • 1. Republic
    >> 2. 24 departments
    >> 3. (2007) president currently is Alejandro Toledo
    >> 4. Constitution- president can serve for two consecutive terms
    >> 5. Executive branch – president, two vice presidents, and council of minister
    >> 6. The Unicameral congress- 120 members
    >> 7. Supreme court- 16 judges
    >> 8. Political parties: Peru Possible Party, the National Unity Party, the Independent Moralizing Front, and the Popular Action Party
    >> 9. Voting age is 18 years
  • D. Language
    • 1. Official languages: Spanish, Quechua, Aymara
    >> 2. 30% of the indigenous population doesn’t speak Spanish
    >> 3. Many are taught English as another language
  • E. Art and Tradition
    • 1. Music is very important
    >> 2. Three traditional instruments: Charango (a small guitar) the antara (assortment of vertical flutes), and the quena (similar to a recorder)
    >> 3. Typical types of dances from the mountains: baile de las tigeras and huayno
    >> 4. The cajón – African descendent dance
    >> 5. Folk arts
    >> 6. Clothing from thick wool
    >> 7. Pottery and metalworking
    >> 8. Indigenous literary genre- indijanista
    >> 9. Peruvian literature- romantic
  • F. Religion
    • 1. Freedom of religion
    >> 2. About 90% are Roman Catholic
  • G. Social Organization
    • 1. Family is very important
    >> 2. Nuclear families- average of three children
    >> 3. Father is head of household
    >> 4. Mother- takes care of children and household duties
    >> 5. 1/3 labor forces include females
    >> 6. New married couples often live with parents until they can afford their own place
  • H. Holidays
    • 1. New Year’s Day
    >> 2. Independence day (July 28) – one of the most popular days
      • a.~Fireworks
  • >> >>> b.~Schools and businesses closed
    • 3. National day (July 29)
  • >> 4. Christmas
  • >> 5. Local holidays – in order to honor saints
>
I. G**reetings
      • 1. First hand accounts – usually shake hands
    • >> 2. Women often kiss others who are close friends and family members
    • >> 3. Arm around the shoulder- polite way to greet others
    • >> 4. Typical greetings and departures: ¡Buenas tardes! (Good afternoon), ¡Buenos días! (Good morning), and ¡Buenas noches! (Good evening/night)
    • J. Food
      • 1. Most foods include: beans, fish, rice, and other fruits
      >> 2. Corn- important to indigenous people
      >> 3. High land dishes- garlic, potatoes, and onions
  • pisacmarket.jpg
>
*** 4. Bargaining in market places for certain food items
  • >>> 5. Eat in a continental style
  • >>> 6. Table manners are important
  • >>> 7. Guests must eat all food offered
  • >>> 8. Tip expected in the restaurant
  • VII. Uruguay
>
> img_1399954805114b722c9fb4e97ca655bb.jpg PEN_50b.jpg r7.jpg
  • <<All Google Images>>
>
>
    • A. Technology
      • 1. Industries make up 68% of Uruguay’s GDP
      >> 2. Manufacturing makes up 20% of Uruguay’s GDP
      >> 3. There are no deposits of petroleum, natural gasses, or coal
      >> 4. Imports of fuel
      >> 5. Hydroelectric power for electricity
      >> 6. Development of roads
      >> 7. Railroad system – operated by government
      >> 8. Most of population owns a radio
      >> 9. 1 television for every 4 people
      >> 10. 2 dozen general newspapers
      >> 11. Freedom of press by Constitution
    • B. Economics
      • 1. Fertile land – Greatest natural resourced used in livestock and agriculture production
      >> 2. World leaders in wool production and cattle production
      >> 3. Chief products: rice, sorghum, wheat, and corn
      >> 4. Members of Mercosur (Southern Common Market)
      >> 5. Struggles in some economical sections
      >> 6. Issues: low wages, high unemployment, and raise in prices
      >> 7. 1/3 of all income is earned by women
      >> 8. Access to health care and education
      >> 9. Currency: Uruguayan peso (UY)
    • C. Politics/ Government
      • 1. Democratic republic
      >> 2. Current president (2007) - Tabaré Vázquez
      >> 3. Divided into 19 provinces
      >> 4. Executive branch – lead by presidents and vice president
      >> 5. Presidents may not run for consecutive terms
      >> 6. General assembly – 30 seat changer of senators and 99 seat chamber of representatives
      >> 7. Political parties – Colorado Party, National Party, and Broad Front Coalition
      >> 8. Voting age begins at age 18
    • D. Language
      • 1. Official language is Spanish
      >> 2. Northern bordered areas – people speak mixes of Spanish and Portuguese
      >> 3. Second languages include Portuguese and English
      >> 4. Minority groups sepal Italian and other languages
    • E. Art and Tradition
      • 1. Traditional arts and literature is rich
      >> 2. Often times paintings are influenced through local these: history, the gaucho, and rural life
      >> 3. Tango music and dances are very admired
      >> 4. Traditional dances: milonga and the vidalita
      >> 5. Productions of Carnival theater are often performed
    • F. Religion
      • 1. a Secular country
      >> 2. No secular religious
      >> 3. Religious freedom
      >> 4. About 50% to 65% belong to Roman Catholic Churches
      >> 5. Little more then 1% - believe in the Jewish faith
    • G. Social Organization
      • 1. Strong family ties
      >> 2. Average of two children per family
      >> 3. Nuclear families
      >> 4. Father holds most power in family
      >> 5. Many families are still patriarchal
      >> 6. Many women work and study outside their households
      >> 7. Children stay at home until he or she is married
      >> 8. Wealthy families manage and direct politics and economy
    • H. Holidays
      • 1. Most important holidays include: Children’s day( January 6), New Year’s Day, Easter (which includes Good Friday and Holy Thursday), Carnival, Christmas, and Christmas Eve.
      >> 2. Celebrations for local saints
      >> 3. New Year’s Eve and Christmas Even have family gatherings and fireworks at midnight
    • I. Greetings
      • 1. Men greet with hand shakes
      >> 2. Closer friends and family members are greeted with an abrazo
      >> 3. Women greet with a kiss on the cheek
      >> 4. No greetings toward strangers met on the street
      >> 5. People greet all when arriving at a social function
      >> 6. People are addressed by his or her right name or surname
    • J. Food
      • 1. Country produces most of its own food
      >> 2. Principle grains include wheat and rice
      >> 3. Beef is eaten almost everyday
      >> 4. Traditional dishes: asado (beef which is grilled), milanesa (steak which is fried and breaded), and guiso (beef that is grounded, served with rice, egg, and onion)
      >> 5. Most eat in a continental style
      >> 6. Elbows are not allowed on the table while ating
      >> 7. It is impolite to use a toothpick in public
      >> 8. Traditionally eat a very light breakfast
      >> 9. The main meal is usually eaten around one or two P.M.
      >> 10. Dinner is always a light meal then the rest
>
> VIII. Paraguay
  • frutos03.jpg Money_of_Paraguay_1.jpg ricefields2.jpg montevideo-carnaval.jpg
  • << All Google Images>>
>
>
    • A. Technology
      • 1. Service industries account for 55% of the country’s GDP
      >> 2. Manufacturing accounts for 15% of the country’s GDP
      >> 3. Large factories are in Asunción
      >> 4. Mainly uses hydroelectric power
      >> 5. Rivers used as main source for transportation
      >> 6. Major cities connect with high way
      >> 7. Less then 2% of the population owns their own automobiles
      >> 8. Major railroad on the Atlantic coast
      >> 9. Airport handles all major international flights
      >> 10. Four daily newspapers
    • B. Economics
      • 1. Formally based on agriculture
      >> 2. The growth of cotton is a primary cash crop which is grown by many rural families
      >> 3. Important export includes beef
      >> 4. Economic problems: foreign debts, unemployment rate is high, trained workforces are lacked, lack of transportation, and problems with the government
      >> 5. There is a lot of deforestation, which errors in the timber industry
      >> 6. 1/3 or more of the population lives under poverty
      >> 7. Is apart of the Mercosur trade
      >> 8. Economy is still very weak
      >> 9. Currency: guaraní (PYG)
    • C. Politics/ Government
      • 1. Constitutional democracy
      >> 2. 17 different provinces
      >> 3. (2007) current president is Nicanor Duarte Frutos
      >> 4. President can not run for two terms that are consecutive
      >> 5. Legislator consist of 45 Chamber of senators and 80 Chamber of Deputies
      >> 6. Voting begins at age 18
      >> 7. Principle parties: Colorado Party and the Authentic Radical Liberal Party
    • D. Language
      • 1. Spanish and Guaraní are the two official languages
      >> 2. Spanish: language of urban commerce, government, and schooling
      >> 3. Most speak/can understand English
    • E. Art and Tradition
      • 1. Affected by Spanish and Guaraní heritages
      >> 2. Popular crafts: pottery, embroidery, and wood and stone carvings
      >> 3. Western influences in music
      >> 4. Music includes Latino polkas and ballads
      >> 5. Dancing is influenced from Spain
      >> 6. Harp is a very important instrument
    • F. Religion
      • 1. 90% are Roman Catholic
      >> 2. Catholicism is vital in the role in society
      >> 3. Some are protestants and Christian
      >> 4. Rural people tend to mix Christian beliefs with other traditional beliefs
    • G. Social Organization
      • 1. Families consist of extended family members
      >> 2. Families consist of well behaved and polite children
      >> 3. Father is the head of the household and mother takes care of household duties
      >> 4. Rural women are involved with agriculture
      >> 5. 40% consist of women for are in the labor force
      >> 6. Most families live in brick or wooden homes
      >> 7. Nearly all homes consist of electricity and running water
    • H. Holidays
      • 1. Important holidays include: New Year’s Day, Carnaval (in February), Independence Day (14-15 of May), Semana Santa, Constitutions Day (August 25) and Christmas
      >> 2. Semana Santa is the holy week before Easter where many families gather for celebration
    • I. Greetings
      • 1. Spanish greetings are more commonly used when greeting strangers
      >> 2. Guaraní greeting are used more commonly when greeting friends or family members
      >> 3. Always shake hands when people greet
      >> 4. People who feel for the first will kiss each other on the cheeks
      >> 5. Urban men are commonly addressed by their last name
      >> 6. Younger people usually reference others by a nickname
      >> 7. Elders are often greeted with hands in a prayer position
    • J. Food
      • 1. Breakfast consists of coffee, rolls or pastries, and bread and butter
      >> 2. Lunch is the main meal
      >> 3. Important foods includes: mandioca, sopa Paraguaya, Chila (cheese bread), empanadas, and tortillas
      >> 4. Commonly eaten by adults includes beef
      >> 5. Many also teat chicken and port dishes
      >> 6. Rural family members often eat when they have time
      >> 7. Urban families eat their main meal at a specific time together
      >> 8. Not finishing food put on plate is considered rude to the cook
      >> 9. Few people drink during meal time
      >> 10. Barbecues are a popular gathering for many family members
      >> 11. Eating or drinking is common in public areas
      >> 12. Food sharing is a common custom during a snack time
      >> 13. Tips are not expected to be given to the waiters in a restaurant
>
> IX. Brazil
>
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  • << All google Images>>
>
>
    • A. Technology
      • 1. Factories and service industries bring Brazil its GDP
      >> 2. Highest GDP in South America
      >> 3. Many private enterprises
      >> 4. Government control over steel industries and other basic industries
      >> 5. Hydroelectric power produces nearly all of Brazil’s electricity
      >> 6. Brazil produces most of its own oil
      >> 7. Major producer of television programs
    • B. Economics
      • 1. Brazil has the largest economy, and 8th largest in the world
      >> 2. Poverty level- 20% of the population
      >> 3. Currency – the real
      >> 4. Unemployment is low in some areas, but higher in large cities (São Paulo)
      >> 5. Agriculture employs almost 20% of the population
      >> 6. Large producer of- coffee, oranges, and bananas
      >> 7. Industrial exports- automobiles and part, textiles, mineral, metals
      >> 8. Many natural gasses are imported
      >> 9. Part of mercosur- regional free trade pact with Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay
    • C. Politics/Government
      • 1. Strong federative republic government
      >> 2. Independence- September 7, 1822
      >> 3. Based on Roman codes- government
      >> 4. 26 states and 1 federal district (Brasília)
      >> 5. Current president (2007) - Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva
      >> 6. 1997- Amendment allows for governors, mayors, and presidents to run to two consecutive terms
      >> 7. Voting is required between the ages of 18 to 70
    • D. Language
      • 1. Official language- Portuguese
      >> 2. English and French- popular second languages
      >> 3. Spanish- popular for trading purposes
      >> 4. Southern cities- German and Italian languages are very popular
      >> 5. For then 100 languages can be spoken by Indigenous people
    • E. Art and Tradition
      • 1. Music, dance, and festival influences
      >> 2. Samba- most popular music uses African rhythm blends
      >> 3. Weaving and pottery- often have religious scenes
      >> 4. String instrument are influenced by European movements
      >> 5. Artists and writers combine traditional and modern styles
    • F. Religion
      • 1. Strongly Roman Catholic
      >> 2. 95% - belong to a Catholic Church
      >> 3. Many only tend church for religious holidays
      >> 4. Afro- Brazilian religions combine in northeast and urban areas countrywide
      >> 5. Some indigenous Africans believe with Catholicism
    • G. Social Organization
      • 1. Large families and many include extended family
      >> 2. Nuclear families- 1 to 3 children
      >> 3. Family is typically lead by the father
      >> 4. Mother influences decision making
      >> 5. Children – stay with family until married
      >> 6. Elder live with children because it known to be inappropriate to send them to live in a nursing home
      >> 7. Family ties are very strong
      >> 8. Middle income families- live in apartments or reserved homes
      >> 9. Women and children work to support families
    • H. Holidays
      • 1. Carnaval- five days after Ash Wednesday
  • brazil-button.jpg<<Google Images>>
>
*** 2. Most famous holiday
  • >>> 3. Street parades, dancing, parties, drinking, costumes, music
  • >>> 4. Prepare costumes
  • >>> 5. Tiradentes day – April 21
  • >>> 6. Easter
  • >>> 7. Labor day- May 19, 2007 Impendence Day
  • >>> 8. September 7
  • >>> 9. Memorial day- November 2
  • >>> 10. Republic day- November 15
  • >>> 11. Christmas Eve- eat big meals and exchange gifts
  • >>> 12. New Year’s Eve- large parties and people place candles and flowers on different beaches
    • I. Greetings
      • 1. Handshakes
      >> 2. Kiss on alternating cheeks- popular among people except one male to another
      >> 3. Common among people: Olá. Tudo bem? - (Hello. Is everything fine?)
      >> 4. When one is leaving, often times one will answer with Tcháu (Good-bye) and Até logo (See you soon)
    • J. Food
>
*** 1. Diet- includes typically meat, bread, rice, beans, cheese, and eggs
  • >>> 2. Breakfast- coffee, milk, fruits, bread with marmalade
  • >>> 3. Lunch- beans, rice, meat, salsa, potatoes, bread, and fruit
  • >>> 4. Foods often spiced with dendê (palm oil)
  • >>> 5. Common drinks- lemonade, milk, fruit juices, shakes, soft drinks, coffee, and mate (a herbal tea, which is mainly drunken in Southern States
  • >>> 6. Meal time is usually with friends and family members
  • >>> 7. Sundays- usually a day where families get together with extended members
  • >>> 8. After meals family members usually drink black tea (cafézinho)
  • X. Ecuador
>
> 2006-02-05_weaving.jpg 87.jpg Alfredo-Palacio-copia.jpg arroz_con.jpg Faith&Reason-2.jpg
  • <<All Google Images>>
>
>
    • A. Technology
      • 1. Major productions of manufactured goods
      >> 2. Lack of roads on high lands
      >> 3. New roads are being built
      >> 4. Less then 3% of the population owns their own automobiles
      >> 5. International airports in the cities of Quito and Guayaquil
      >> 6. 35 daily newspapers
      >> 7. Approximately two radios for every five people
      >> 8. Approximately one television for every five people
      >> 9. Telephone system is controlled by the government
    • B. Economics
      • 1. Economy is slowly building
      >> 2. Past devastations include: low prices on bananas and oil, banking sector problems, foreign debts, and natural disasters
      >> 3. Economy help includes: foreign investments and oil prices raising
      >> 4. Unemployment is high
      >> 5. Majority of the population lives in poverty
      >> 6. Currency: United States Dollar
      >> 7. 1/3 of population is employed in an agricultural field
      >> 8. Highest exporter in bananas
      >> 9. Half the nation’s exports included petroleum, which then is followed by cocoa, coffee, shrimp, and fish.
    • C. Politics/ Government
      • 1. Republic
      >> 2. Executive branch holds the president and vice presidents positions
      >> 3. Current (2007) president is Alfredo Palacio
      >> 4. The unicameral legislature consists of 100 members
      >> 5. Elections run very four years
      >> 6. Voting age begins at 18
      >> 7. Political parties: Popular Democratic, Roldosista, and Social Christian parties
    • D. Language
      • 1. Spanish is official language
      >> 2. Other languages include: Quichua, Saraguro, Otavalan, and Chimborazo
      >> 3. Spanish is spoken at a slower pace in the highlands then on the coasts
    • E. Art and Tradition
      • 1. Reflection of different mixed cultures
      >> 2. Other instruments include: bamboo flutes and panpipes
      >> 3. The Bomba is a rhythmic dance which influenced Africa
      >> 4. Popular folk songs include: pasillo, pasacalle, and yumbo
      >> 5. Younger teens enjoy salsa dancing
      >> 6. Weaving includes: bags, sashes, carpets, and Panama hats
      >> 7. Wooden carvings include of the saints or Christ
      >> 8. Other arts include: musical instruments, jewelry, and decorative crosses
    • F. Religion
      • 1. More the 80% follow a Catholic belief
      >> 2. Many holidays are influenced by a Catholic faith
      >> 3. Families celebrate baptism, and confirmation
    • G. Social Organization
      • 1. Families are very close-knit
      >> 2. Nuclear families live under one roof
      >> 3. Mothers earn the role of taking care and raising children
      >> 4. Children live with parents until he or she becomes married
      >> 5. Urban average of children is two
      >> 6. Rural average of children is three
    • H. Holidays
      • 1. New Year’s Eve is very important
      >> 2. Carnaval season (March or February) includes a week of dances, parties, parades
      >> 3. Easter
      >> 4. Inti Raymi is a festival of the sun which occurs in June
      >> 5. Independence of Quito Day (August 10) marks the nations first efforts towards reaching Independence
      >> 6. Christmas is also very important
    • I. Greetings
      • 1. Hand shakes are the first gestures used when people meet
      >> 2. Then the people exchange good wishes for one another
      >> 3. Closer friends and relatives greet with a kiss on the cheek
      >> 4. People greet strangers when passing them along the streets or in stores
    • J. Food
      • 1. Main meal is typically eaten during the midday
      >> 2. Soup is always served
      >> 3. Popular snack includes hot bread
      >> 4. Favorite dishes: Arroz con pollo, locro, ceviche, and fritada
      >> 5. Each holiday consists of its own special food
      >> 6. Meal time typically consists of a good conversation
      >> 7. Leaving food on the plate is improper
      >> 8. Host pays the bill when at a restaurant
>
> Other Nations' Effects On Culture:
>
  • I. Argentina
>
** § Spanish colonization in 1500’s influences culture (especially language)
  • >> § European influence through immigration (97% of Argentines are English, German, Welsh, Spanish, Russian, French, or Italian)
  • >> § Art and music affected by European influence
      • o Operas
    • >> o Symphonic music
    • § American and Central American music listened to
  • >> § Brazil, largest trading partner, effects economy
  • >> § European (more fashionable) and North American attire
  • >> § Primary food originated in Italy and French foods available
  • II. Bolivia (Poorer country with culture based mainly on indigenous people and traditions)
>
** § Under Spanish control by 1538 (affected language, Spanish is official)
  • >> § 25% of population are of mixed European and native descent and 15% European descent
  • >> § Western-styled clothing
  • III. Brazil
>
** § Colonized by Portuguese in 1500’s (donated official language)
  • >> § 1580-1640- controlled by British
  • >> § 50% of population of European descent, mostly Portuguese
  • >> § 8% African descent (descended from slaves)
  • >> § Other languages from Spain, France, England, Germany, and Italian
  • >> § Religions such as Candomblé, Macumba, and Xangô from mixed African and European descent
  • >> § Popular urban fashions from Europe, especially Italy
  • >> § Music and art influenced by all cultures
  • IV. Chile
>
** § Incas from Peru first explored Chile in mid-15th century
  • moz-screenshot-3.jpgmoz-screenshot-4.jpgincas_1.jpg
  • <<Google Images>>
>
>
    • § 1536- Chile claimed as Spain’s
  • >> § 95% of population of European or mixed European descent
      • o Middle-eastern immigrants
    • >> o Ancestry in Spain, France, Germany, Switzerland, Croatia, Russia, Syria, or Lebanon
    • § Official language provided by Spain
  • >> § German and English also spoken
  • >> § Fashionable clothing from Europe
  • >> § Lower-class clothing from USA
  • >> § Popular music can be from Europe
  • V. Columbia
>
** § Spanish settled in 1500’s (official language)
  • >> § Many blacks descending from slaves and many Spanish
  • >> § Music has African roots
  • VI. Ecuador
>
** § Original indigenous people conquered by Incas in late 1400’s
  • >> § Conquered and enslaved by Spanish in 1534 (official language)
  • >> § 7% of Spanish descent and 3% of African descent
  • >> § Western-style clothing
  • poncho1.jpg
  • << Google Images>>
>
> VII. Paraguay
>
    • § 1524- Spanish explorers arrived (one official language)
  • >> § Some Asians (merchants) live there
  • >> § Spanish culture evident in art
  • >> § Part of Mercosur trade bloc with Argentina, and Uruguay
  • VIII. Peru
>
** § 1532- invaded by Spanish (one official language)
  • >> § 15% European descent (mostly Spanish), 3% black
  • >> § English taught to more educated
  • >> § Member of trade bloc with Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela
  • IX. Uruguay
>
** 1500’s to 1600’s, Spanish (official language) and Portuguese colonize and drive out indigenous people
  • >> § 88% Spanish, Italian, or Portuguese
  • >> § 4% black
  • >> § 2nd languages include English and Portuguese
  • >> § European dress common
  • >> § Italian pastas and gnocchi eaten
  • pasta01.jpg
  • <<Google Images>.
>
>
    • § Dependent on Argentina and Brazil for economy
  • X. Venezuela
>
** § Conquered by Spanish in early 1500’s (official language)
  • >> § 67% of population of mixed-European and black descent and 10% black
  • >> § Students required to take English
  • >> § European clothing popular in both urban and traditional peoples
  • >> § Pasta (common) from Italy
>
> INTERVIEW: We interviewed a white Brazilian male named Johnny and asked him a few questions about South America to help us see culture firsthand. Here is what he said:
  • 1) What is your religion? Crente
  • 2) What is your ethnicity? German, Italian
  • 3) What foods do you like? Pizza
  • 4)What foods are popular in Brazil? Arroz feijas
  • 6) What kind of music do you like? Rock
  • 9)What are some of your favorite South American holidays? World Cup
>
> Map of South America:
>
  • map.png
  • <<Grolier>>
>
> Essential Questions: What do we need to know? DUE May 9th: Please list your essential questions below:
>
>
>
>
  • Works Cited: Where did you get your information DUE the day you teach: Please list your works cited below:
  • code
  • Owensby, Brian P, and Mary Weismantel. "Latin America." World Book Online
  • Reference Center. 2007. World Book. 9 May 2007
  • <http://www.worldbookonline.com/>.
  • code
>
> code
  • "South America." Volume Library. Ed. Georgia L. Brazil, Carolyn M. King, and
  • Barbara J. Reed. Vol. 2. Nashville, Tennessee: Southwestern, 2003. 4-36.
>
>

  • code
  • Snaden, James N. "South America." Grolier Online. Grolier Online. Grolier
  • Multimedia Encyclopedia. Scholastic Lib. 8 May 2007
  • <http://gme.grolier.com/>.
  • code
>
> code